12 Jun
2021

Flowing Electrons Help Ocean Microbes Gulp Methane

first_img faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyCitizen Service CenterPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Subscribe Science and Technology Flowing Electrons Help Ocean Microbes Gulp Methane By JESSICA STOLLER-CONRAD Published on Friday, September 18, 2015 | 11:20 am Electron microscopy (left), and nanoSIMS analyses (right) of slices of individual microbial consortia allowed for unambiguous identification and analysis of thousands of individual cells. nanoSIMS images such as this one give a quantitative picture of the isotopic composition of each cell, and in turn, a measure of each cell’s biosynthetic activity in relationship to each cell’s neighbors. Credit: Shawn McGlynn/CaltechGood communication is crucial to any relationship, especially when partners are separated by distance. This also holds true for microbes in the deep sea that need to work together to consume large amounts of methane released from vents on the ocean floor. Recent work at Caltech has shown that these microbial partners can still accomplish this task, even when not in direct contact with one another, by using electrons to share energy over long distances.This is the first time that direct interspecies electron transport—the movement of electrons from a cell, through the external environment, to another cell type—has been documented in microorganisms in nature.The results were published in the September 16 issue of the journal Nature.“Our lab is interested in microbial communities in the environment and, specifically, the symbiosis—or mutually beneficial relationship—between microorganisms that allows them to catalyze reactions they wouldn’t be able to do on their own,” says Professor of Geobiology Victoria Orphan, who led the recent study. For the last two decades, Orphan’s lab has focused on the relationship between a species of bacteria and a species of archaea that live in symbiotic aggregates, or consortia, within deep-sea methane seeps. The organisms work together in syntrophy (which means “feeding together”) to consume up to 80 percent of methane emitted from the ocean floor—methane that might otherwise end up contributing to climate change as a greenhouse gas in our atmosphere.Previously, Orphan and her colleagues contributed to the discovery of this microbial symbiosis, a cooperative partnership between methane-oxidizing archaea called anaerobic methanotrophs (or “methane eaters”) and a sulfate-reducing bacterium (organisms that can “breathe” sulfate instead of oxygen) that allows these organisms to consume methane using sulfate from seawater. However, it was unclear how these cells share energy and interact within the symbiosis to perform this task.Because these microorganisms grow slowly (reproducing only four times per year) and live in close contact with each other, it has been difficult for researchers to isolate them from the environment to grow them in the lab. So, the Caltech team used a research submersible, called Alvin, to collect samples containing the methane-oxidizing microbial consortia from deep-ocean methane seep sediments and then brought them back to the laboratory for analysis.The researchers used different fluorescent DNA stains to mark the two types of microbes and view their spatial orientation in consortia. In some consortia, Orphan and her colleagues found the bacterial and archaeal cells were well mixed, while in other consortia, cells of the same type were clustered into separate areas.Orphan and her team wondered if the variation in the spatial organization of the bacteria and archaea within these consortia influenced their cellular activity and their ability to cooperatively consume methane. To find out, they applied a stable isotope “tracer” to evaluate the metabolic activity. The amount of the isotope taken up by individual archaeal and bacterial cells within their microbial “neighborhoods” in each consortia was then measured with a high-resolution instrument called nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) at Caltech. This allowed the researchers to determine how active the archaeal and bacterial partners were relative to their distance to one another.To their surprise, the researchers found that the spatial arrangement of the cells in consortia had no influence on their activity. “Since this is a syntrophic relationship, we would have thought the cells at the interface—where the bacteria are directly contacting the archaea—would be more active, but we don’t really see an obvious trend. What is really notable is that there are cells that are many cell lengths away from their nearest partner that are still active,” Orphan says.To find out how the bacteria and archaea were partnering, co-first authors Grayson Chadwick (BS ’11), a graduate student in geobiology at Caltech and a former undergraduate researcher in Orphan’s lab, and Shawn McGlynn, a former postdoctoral scholar, employed spatial statistics to look for patterns in cellular activity for multiple consortia with different cell arrangements. They found that populations of syntrophic archaea and bacteria in consortia had similar levels of metabolic activity; when one population had high activity, the associated partner microorganisms were also equally active—consistent with a beneficial symbiosis. However, a close look at the spatial organization of the cells revealed that no particular arrangement of the two types of organisms—whether evenly dispersed or in separate groups—was correlated with a cell’s activity.To determine how these metabolic interactions were taking place even over relatively long distances, postdoctoral scholar and coauthor Chris Kempes, a visitor in computing and mathematical sciences, modeled the predicted relationship between cellular activity and distance between syntrophic partners that are dependent on the molecular diffusion of a substrate. He found that conventional metabolites—molecules previously predicted to be involved in this syntrophic consumption of methane—such as hydrogen—were inconsistent with the spatial activity patterns observed in the data. However, revised models indicated that electrons could likely make the trip from cell to cell across greater distances.“Chris came up with a generalized model for the methane-oxidizing syntrophy based on direct electron transfer, and these model results were a better match to our empirical data,” Orphan says. “This pointed to the possibility that these archaea were directly transferring electrons derived from methane to the outside of the cell, and those electrons were being passed to the bacteria directly.”Guided by this information, Chadwick and McGlynn looked for independent evidence to support the possibility of direct interspecies electron transfer. Cultured bacteria, such as those from the genus Geobacter, are model organisms for the direct electron transfer process. These bacteria use large proteins, called multi-heme cytochromes, on their outer surface that act as conductive “wires” for the transport of electrons.Using genome analysis—along with transmission electron microscopy and a stain that reacts with these multi-heme cytochromes—the researchers showed that these conductive proteins were also present on the outer surface of the archaea they were studying. And that finding, Orphan says, can explain why the spatial arrangement of the syntrophic partners does not seem to affect their relationship or activity.“It’s really one of the first examples of direct interspecies electron transfer occurring between uncultured microorganisms in the environment. Our hunch is that this is going to be more common than is currently recognized,” she says.Orphan notes that the information they have learned about this relationship will help to expand how researchers think about interspecies microbial interactions in nature. In addition, the microscale stable isotope approach used in the current study can be used to evaluate interspecies electron transport and other forms of microbial symbiosis occurring in the environment.These results were published in a paper titled, “Single cell activity reveals direct electron transfer in methanotrophic consortia.” The work was funded by the Department of Energy Division of Biological and Environmental Research and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Marine Microbiology Initiative. 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Required fields are marked * Make a comment Top of the News Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  2 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Community News Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadenalast_img read more

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24 May
2021

ARTRAGEOUS: TAC kicks off 2020 with energetic show

first_img Remember America’s heroes on Memorial Day Email the author 1234567PrevNextStartStop Pike County Sheriff’s Office offering community child ID kits By The Penny Hoarder The Penny Hoarder Issues “Urgent” Alert: 6 Companies… Sponsored Content Troy falls to No. 13 Clemson Around the WebMd: Do This Immediately if You Have Diabetes (Watch)Blood Sugar BlasterIf You Have Ringing Ears Do This Immediately (Ends Tinnitus)Healthier LivingWomen Only: Stretch This Muscle to Stop Bladder Leakage (Watch)Patriot Health ZoneHave an Enlarged Prostate? Urologist Reveals: Do This Immediately (Watch)Healthier LivingRemoving Moles & Skin Tags Has Never Been This EasyEssential Health32-second Stretch Ends Back Pain & Sciatica (Watch)Healthier LivingThe content you see here is paid for by the advertiser or content provider whose link you click on, and is recommended to you by Revcontent. As the leading platform for native advertising and content recommendation, Revcontent uses interest based targeting to select content that we think will be of particular interest to you. We encourage you to view your opt out options in Revcontent’s Privacy PolicyWant your content to appear on sites like this?Increase Your Engagement Now!Want to report this publisher’s content as misinformation?Submit a ReportGot it, thanks!Remove Content Link?Please choose a reason below:Fake NewsMisleadingNot InterestedOffensiveRepetitiveSubmitCancel “It was art; it was music; it was dance; it was storytelling. It was stage performance and audience participation. It was everything theater is and all wrapped into one. It really was ARTrageous.”ARTrageous is an 11- member traveling artistic troupe based in New Mexico, and Hopper said, already, the TAC is considering having them travel back this way.“The show generated so much excitement and enthusiasm that I would like to have ARTrageous back in Troy,” Hopper said. “The show was full of energy and that spilled over into the audience. The audience response was amazing. It was a wonderful event.” Some events are billed as “a don’t miss.”On Sunday afternoon, the Troy Arts Council presented a “don’t miss” event at the Claudia Crosby Theater and it was that and a whole lot more, said Bill Hopper, TAC president.“If ARTrageous didn’t hit with everybody somehow, I don’t know what else we can do,” Hopper said. “It was a performance for all ages and for all interests. Published 9:07 pm Monday, January 13, 2020 Book Nook to reopen Plans underway for historic Pike County celebration Following the show, Hopper said audience members expressed amazement at the talent of the troupe.“In talking with audience members afterwards, they were impressed with the talent – the singing and dancing and especially the artistic talent,” he said. “The artists painted with their hands and with brushes.”They painted individually and then together in what was almost like a choreographed dance.“They even painted upside down,” Hopper said. “When, they tuned the painting over, it was the Mona Lisa.” Monday night hoops The Troy Recreation Center played host to recreation league basketball on Monday night in Troy. Monday night’s game begane the… read more Print Article You Might Like John Lennon and Freddie Mercury were subjects of the ARTrageous paintings that were done to the music of the musicians. Vincent van Gogh’s “Starry Night” was a black-light painting.The performance ended with the audience on its collective feet as the artists painted an   American eagle and the Statue of Liberty to music, enhanced by dance.Hopper said the ARTrageous troupe was generous in donating the on-stage paintings to the TAC.Just what plans the TAC has for the paintings is uncertain but Kay Stinson is certain what she will do with the painting that she was fortunate to win.On the ARTrageous Facebook page was an invitation to enter the drawing for a painting that would be done on stage at the Sunday performance at the Claudia Crosby Theater.“I entered my name in the drawing and just got lucky,” Stinson said. “I got to choose which painting I wanted and I chose the Liberty one. The eagle was great, too, but the Liberty painting made a statement, USA. Recently, we’ve been through a lot of trying times. Liberty is what I wanted.”Stinson said she thoroughly enjoyed ARTrageous.“Those that were not there really missed something fantastic,” she said. “I don’t know when I’ve enjoyed anything as much. And, the talent of those 11 people was unbelievable.”Stinson said she heard that the TAC might have ARTrageous back and, if so, she’ll be on the front row. “It was just that good.” Latest Stories ARTRAGEOUS: TAC kicks off 2020 with energetic show Skip By Jaine Treadwelllast_img read more

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18 Jan
2021

Anna-Jane Casey and More to Star in London’s Forbidden Broadway

first_img Casey, who starred in the 2009 production of Menier’s Forbidden Broadway, has also appeared in Billy Elliot, Spamalot, Company and Sunday in the Park with George. Dann, who received an Olivier nomination for Lend Me a Tenor—the Musical, has also stared in a previous incarnation of Forbidden Broadway, in addition to Sunday in the Park with George. Humbley recently took to the Menier stage in Merrily We Roll Along and has also appeared in productions of Company, Lend Me a Tenor—the Musical and The Last Five Years. Lewis’ theater credits include Candide, Therese Raquin, Love Never Dies, A Little Night Music, Spamalot and Priscilla—Queen of the Desert. Under the direction of Phillip George, who also helms the show in New York, Forbidden Broadway will feature music direction by Joel Fram, costumes by Morgan Large and sound design by Gareth Owen. View Commentscenter_img Anna-Jane Casey, Sophie-Louise Dann, Damian Humbley and Ben Lewis will star in the previously announced London return of Gerard Alessandrini’s Forbidden Broadway. New York’s longest-running comedy revue will feature takes on productions from both Broadway and the West End, including The Book of Mormon, Once, Matilda, Wicked and Miss Saigon. Performances begin June 19 prior to a July 2 opening night at the Menier Chocolate Factory. The show will play through August 16.last_img read more

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