19 Dec
2019

Flagellar Oars Beat Like Galley Slaves In Synchronization

first_imgThe Dec. 14 issue of Current Biology1 investigated another mystery in the operation of eukaryotic flagella:Flagella are microtubule-based structures that propel cells through the surrounding fluid.  The internal structure of a flagellum consists of nine parallel doublet microtubules arranged around a central pair of singlet microtubules (Figure 1).  Force for propulsion is provided by thousands of dynein motors anchored in rows along one side of each doublet, which can walk along the microtubule of the adjacent doublet.  In order to produce coordinated bending of the flagellum, these dynein motors — organized into multi-headed complexes called the inner and outer dynein arms — must produce their power strokes in synchrony, like the oarsmen on an ancient Mediterranean war-galley.  But whereas oar-strokes were coordinated by a continuous drum-beat, it is much less clear how flagellar dynein motors are synchronized.The authors of the paper consider growing evidence that the central microtubule pair provides the drumbeat, with the aid of “a protein complex called the dynein regulatory complex, located between the spokes and the dynein arms.”  However, “The molecular mechanism by which the central pair regulates dynein is not known.” 1Kimberly A. Wemmer and Wallace F. Marshall, “Flagellar Motility: All Pull Together,” Current Biology Volume 14, Issue 23, 14 December 2004, Pages R992-R993, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.11.019.Thus another deeper level of complexity becomes apparent.  A collection of parts is not enough; they must coordinate their actions.  No wonder Antony Flew considered Darwin’s Black Box an “amazing book” and has become a theist (see 12/09/2004 entry).(Visited 38 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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15 Dec
2019

India’s cities get smarter with new project to boost data tracking

first_imgA charity is partnering with the World Council on City Data to build the capabilities of Indian cities to track city performance with data.As reported in the Times of India, the data project is called the City Data India Initiative. It is being spearheaded by Tata Trusts, the charitable organisation that controls two-thirds equity of the parent company of the Tata Group conglomerate.See also: India hopeful Trump will continue smart cities initiativesTata Trusts is partnering with the Toronto-based World Council on City Data (WCCD) which is an organization that provides a platform for standardized city data. The WCCD also provides certification for the international standard ISO 37120 Sustainable Development of Communities: Indicators for City Services and Quality of Life that allows benchmarking for progress and innovation.Aimed at building Indian city data capabilitiesThe new initiative is focused on building the data capabilities of Indian cities to accurately measure their urban area’s environmental, social, economic and performance.“It has become clear that we are now giving the cities true strength by working on data and recognising the importance of data,” said Ratan Tata, chairman of Tata Trusts. “The impact of this profound usage is huge. It will enable both the government and private sectors to set civic codes, evaluate outreach and finally assess the impact of policy and initiatives.”The City Data India Initiative is aimed at supporting and enhancing the Indian governments various city development programmes. Specifically the new project will benefit government’s Smart Cities Mission and the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation.“Realising the value of data, Tata Trusts have actively taken up the agenda of striving towards ‘Data-Driven Governance’ to inform, impact and improve policy formation with a view to facilitate holistic development of the nation,” stated Tata Trusts.The new data program will begin with three urban areas: Jamshedpur, Surat and Pune.This follows earlier news that U.S. networking hardware giant Cisco Systems is looking to transform 100 Indian metropolises into smart cities with connected technology.Cisco announced in November that it would begin by wiring 14 Indian cities, and hoped to expand that number to 100 throughout the life of its partnership. Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Donal Power Small Business Cybersecurity Threats and How to… Tags:#Cisco#India#IoT#Smart Cities#smart city#Tata Group#Tata Trusts#World Council on City Data center_img Related Posts Follow the Puck Internet of Things Makes it Easier to Steal You…last_img read more

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12 Dec
2019

Comparing Documentary Styles: Cinéma Vérité to Modern Docs

first_imgLet’s take a look at the history of documentary filmmaking and explore the most popular approaches to the craft.[Above image from Shutterstock]The popularity of the modern documentary has steadily risen in recent years.  Since the Maysles brothers came onto the scene in the 1960s, it seems each generation since has embraced the concept of the documentary in their personal manner with increasing public interest. But what constitutes a true documentary? Who started the original movement? How did the modern documentary come to be? Let’s explore the answers below.Defining True DocumentariesAlthough some films are based off of true stories, the raw essence of real people, real events, and real places are what separate documentaries from the rest of the pack. Though the definition of a “true” documentary has changed over the years, they all incorporate some form of truth and fact. There are two main categories that the majority of documentary films fit into: Cinéma vérité and the modern documentary.The First DocumentaryThe roots of documentary filmmaking can be found in the frozen Canadian wilds, where Robert J. Flaherty filmed Nanook of the North, a 1922 silent film considered to be the first feature-length documentary. Nanook of the North was was one of the first 25 films to be selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress, but it is not without criticism – Flaherty is known to have staged several of the film’s sequences. Nonetheless, it is obviously worth a look.Cinéma VéritéThe cinéma vérité genre originated in the 1960s in the French New Wave movement, due partially to technical advances of camera and audio equipment becoming increasingly portable. Contrasting with a studio-type style of production, the cinéma vérité genre captured a raw style using only on-location picture, audio, and lighting.Robert Drew, alongside Albert and David Maysles, further advanced this conceptual style with direct cinema, which emphasized direct relations between the film crew and the subjects. The absence of a narrator explaining things for the audience allowed the editor the freedom to conceptually tell the story in an obscure way. Drew’s work on Primary, about the 1960 Wisconsin Primary election between John F. Kennedy and Hubert Humphrey for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States, is heralded as a masterpiece of direct cinema, and many consider Drew to be the father of cinéma vérité.Here’s a brief clip of Drew discussing Primary.Here’s a look at the landmark Maysles brothers film, Salesman.Modern DocumentaryThe modern documentary is different from the raw cinéma vérité style that came before. In contrast, interviews are set; narration is present, the cinematography can be sophisticated and a great deal of post-production is present in the way of editing, graphic effects, music and sound design. With the shift away from cinéma vérité came more informative directorial control, much like the style of Michael Moore’s documentaries (check out Roger and Me for a good example).Great development in regards to styles of modern documentaries is often attributed to Ken Burns. His use of archival and pictorial elements became a landmark of documentary making, particularly with the “Ken Burns Effect.”Theatrical releases of modern documentaries have become extremely successful in the last decade with box office sales soaring. Some critics will argue that the modern documentary lacks the “truth element”. The potential financial gain skews the truth and targets specific audiences. Whatever the case, the modern documentary will continue to evolve.SummaryBox office sales show that documentaries have reached an unprecedented peak in modern culture. Though modern documentaries have overshadowed cinéma vérité type documentaries over the years, there are many films still produced and inspired in a cinéma vérité production. In keeping with the continuing development of documentary films, we can all learn something to apply from the past to the future.If you’re interested in the world of documentary film, here are a few more articles you might enjoy:Tips for Documentary Film ProductionsLessons in Making a Better DocumentaryDistribution Tips from Documentary Filmmaker Scott ThurmanWhat style of documentary do you prefer? What are some of your favorite documentaries? Let’s discuss them in the comments below.last_img read more

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