31 Aug
2019

NY Times is the new sponsor of a rockpaperscissors supercomputer

first_img © 2010 PhysOrg.com Evolutionary game of rock-paper-scissors may lead to new species This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. So simple that you need a supercomputer to win it. The New York Times has created a “You vs. The Computer” game of Rock-Paper-Scissors that pits your ability to play the game versus the supercomputer.The computer has two different modes: The novice mode and the veteran mode. On the novice mode the system has no access to the data about previously stored games. It simply adapts to your style of game play and it makes a set of educated guesses about what you are going to do next. Then it takes its best guess and declares what it thinks will be the winning move. When you play on the the veteran mode, the system has not only your own play style data to work from, but it also has access to data from thousands of games that it has played against other real people. That data is used in a process of recall and comparison to determine what its next move should be. If you want to get an idea of how the system makes these determinations just click on the “See what the computer is thinking” and you will be able to see what the common responses are.For the record, this reporter beat it first time out, in a set of 20, on the veteran level, and I’ll tell you how to do it too. Since the system makes its prediction based on your past moves, and data on other strategy, the best way to beat it is to be unpredictable. Throw strategy out the window and indulge your random side for a while. Citation: NY Times is the new sponsor of a rock-paper-scissors supercomputer (2011, March 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-03-ny-sponsor-rock-paper-scissors-super.html Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — You probably played at least a few games of Rock-Paper-Scissors as a kid. In this game you pretty much have three options, and each of them has both an item to beat, and an item lose to lose to. Rock beats scissors, scissors cut paper and paper covers rock. All you have to due is choose and see how it falls out. It all seems so simple.last_img read more

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31 Aug
2019

Entanglement can help in classical communication

first_img(PhysOrg.com) — When most of us think of entanglement, our minds jump immediately to quantum communication. “Entanglement has become very well known and useful in quantum communication,” Robert Prevedel tells PhysOrg.com. Prevedel, a scientist at the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, believes that entanglement can be used in classical communication as well. Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. More information: R. Prevedel, Y. Lu, W. Matthews, R. Kaltenbaek, and K.J. Resch, “Entanglement-Enhanced Classical Communication Over a Noisy Classical Channel,” Physical Review Letters (2011). Available online: link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.110505 Citation: Entanglement can help in classical communication (2011, March 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-03-entanglement-classical.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.center_img “We have found that in certain situations you can use entanglement to transmit classical information with higher success when using classical channels that are noisy than you could do without.” says Prevedel. “This is a novel use for entanglement which seems to have been overlooked until recently.”A team of scientists at Waterloo, including Prevedel, Lu, Matthews, Kaltenbaek and Resch, demonstrated that that it is possible to benefit from entanglement in some classical communication channels. Their work can be found in Physical Review Letters: “Entanglement-Enhanced Classical Communication Over a Noisy Classical Channel.”“One of the reasons that entanglement hasn’t been thought to be useful for classical communication is that it has been shown to not increase the capacity of a classical channel, which is the ultimate maximum rate of reliable communication” Prevedel explains. “What entanglement can do, though, is reduce the error probability when sending a message with a fixed number of uses of a noisy classical channel.”Prevedel says that the protocol used is fairly simple. “Our demonstration included only two entangled particles and a straightforward classical channel. Entangled photons show nonclassical correlations,. Whenever I do a measurement on one of the photons, I will get a similar result for the same measurement performed on the other photon.”“Sometimes a classical communication channel gets jumbled,” Prevedel explains. “We wanted to see if entanglement could be used to more successfully send information across such a noisy channel. With our simple protocol, and by using entanglement, we found that you can improve the success probability from 83% to 90%. That’s fairly significant.”For now, the protocol only works on a very particular type of channel. “The situation we started with is very specific,” Prevedel points out. “We looked for the channel that would offer us the largest increase in success probability possible. Also, we knew that using entanglement in this manner won’t work with every type of classical communication channel.”So far, the work done by the Waterloo team doesn’t offer immediate applications for communications. “Our results are more important from a fundamental point of view,” Prevedel says. “From a fundamental point of view, this is big news.”Going forward, Prevedel hopes that he and his colleagues can learn more about the benefits that entanglement can have for classical communication. “We want to figure out which classical channels will benefit from it [entanglement], and which will not. We also want to see if there is a way to generalize our findings.” Additionally, the group is hoping that they can adapt what they learned to multi-party conversations. “It might be possible to find scenarios in which entanglement could help in three party or four party conversations – moving beyond two party communication.”Overall, though, Prevedel and his colleagues are excited about the new prospects for combining classical communication with entanglement. “We have shown that entanglement can help in classical communication, a situation where people thought it was useless. Hopefully, our work will spark interest in this research direction, and we can begin to see some applications in the future.” Explore further Too much entanglement can render quantum computers uselesslast_img read more

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31 Aug
2019

Stanford group creates miniature selfcontained fluorescence microscope

first_img Researcher Mark Schnitzer demonstrates the microscope’s tiny size and weight. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Microscope could ‘solve the cause of viruses’ More information: Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope, Nature Methods (2011) doi:10.1038/nmeth.1694AbstractThe light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals for relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including a semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular imaging across ~0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. Citation: Stanford group creates miniature self-contained fluorescence microscope (2011, September 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-stanford-group-miniature-self-contained-fluorescence.html (PhysOrg.com) — A team of researchers working at Stanford University have devised a means for building the smallest self-contained fluorescence microscope ever. Weighing just under 2 grams and slightly larger than the end of a pencil, the new microscope is small enough to attach to a mouse head, which means researchers can watch the mouse brain in a natural setting. Led by Mark Schnitzer and Abbas El Gamal, the team describes its findings in Nature Methods. One downside to the new microscope is that its resolution isn’t quite as good as standard bench models; 2.5 microns as opposed to 0.5. But it does have a larger field of view, which means that most serious labs would likely want to have both types of microscopes, depending on what is being studied.While it’s difficult to say what new discoveries might be made with a microscope that allows researchers to watch a mouse brain in action (on a computer screen) as the mouse goes about its normal activities, it’s probably safe to say, that many of them are likely to be quite illuminating.Schnitzer and some of his colleagues have founded a company they call Inscopix to develop the new microscope and bring it to market, thought they can’t say yet, when that might be. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Till now, most brain researchers have had to use so-called bench-top microscopes, which are what they sound like; microscopes that sit on a bench. This requires that specimens be brought to the microscope (and held still) for examination. This new microscope turns that whole process around in that it allows the microscope to be brought to the specimen, allowing researchers to study the brain in ways that have not been possible before. The team reports that they have already discovered new capillary dilation properties in mouse brains.The fluorescence microscope differs from traditional microscopes in that it looks at material that has a fluorescence property, i.e. is fluorescent (the emission of light by a material when exposed to radiation). To take advantage of this property specimens must be either naturally fluorescent (such as certain proteins) or stained with a fluorescent material. The approach is similar to that seen when a black-light is used to illuminate semen or blood samples at crime scenes. The light sources used in a fluorescence microscope are typically xenon arc or mercury-vapor lamps.The miniaturized microscope developed by the team is comprised of mass produced parts, which the team says will allow for it to be mass produced at a much lower cost than standard bench-microscopes, opening the door to research at places that have up till now lacked the funds to purchase the more expensive equipment. Design and fabrication of an integrated fluorescence microscope. Image: NPG, Nature Methods (2011) doi:10.1038/nmeth.1694last_img read more

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31 Aug
2019

Phase transitions of rice farmers may offer insight into managing natural resources

first_img © 2017 Phys.org More information: H. S. Sugiarto et al. “Social Cooperation and Disharmony in Communities Mediated through Common Pool Resource Exploitation.” Physical Review Letters. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.208301 Citation: Phase transitions of rice farmers may offer insight into managing natural resources (2017, May 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-05-phase-transitions-rice-farmers-insight.html Study finds mutual reinforcement of phenotypic diversity and cooperation (Phys.org)—The Balinese subak is a self-organized agrarian society on the island of Bali in Indonesia, whose members must share a limited amount of water for irrigation and rice production. Some of the farmers share the water fairly, and some don’t. As in many societies, the members of the Balinese subak are segregated into different communities. , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Explore further The researchers mapped three clusters of subaks to three phases indicated by the analytical curves: cooperation (circles); disharmony (diamonds); and defection (squares). Credit: H. S. Sugiarto et al. ©2017 American Physical Society Journal information: Physical Review Letters This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Now in a new study, scientists have found that this segregation changes a society’s cooperation dynamics and may help to promote cooperation and fair resource utilization at the societal level. The results have implications for managing natural resources, which is of particular relevance for addressing environmental issues such as curbing pollution, reducing deforestation, and saving endangered species—problems that require widespread cooperation.The researchers, H. S. Sugiarto et al., from Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, the National University of Singapore, and other institutions, have published their results in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.In their study, the researchers developed a model of social cooperation in self-organized societies that lack central governance, in which individuals are free to choose whether to abide by the rules or not. Their model shows that, as a shared resource becomes more abundant, more individuals may shift from being cooperators (who follow the rules) to being defectors (who violate the rules). At some point, the resource becomes so abundant that all individuals become defectors and social cooperation vanishes.Then the researchers looked at the same scenario, but this time they allowed the society to self-segregate into smaller communities. They found that the downside of the segregation is that it increases the social disharmony throughout the society as a whole. The upside, however, is that the social disharmony within each community becomes very low. In some communities, individuals are more likely to keep cooperating with each other—using the shared resource fairly—compared to the situation without segregation. These results were very similar to what the researchers observed in the segregated society of the Balinese subak.As the researchers explained, the results can be understood in terms of phase transitions. While phase transitions are common in many areas of physics, their role in complex systems, such as human societies, is a newer area of research. In the current study, the shift from cooperators to defectors in a society without segregation as the resource becomes more abundant represents an abrupt phase transition. The researchers explain that segregation “softens” this transition by replacing it with multiple intermediate phases, which arise because some communities are full of cooperators while others are full of defectors. “The greatest significance of our work is in the revelation that stable phases of social and ecological regimes do exist in real-world systems,” coauthor Lock Yue Chew, an associate professor at Nanyang Technological University, told Phys.org. “Our work has also developed mechanistic insights that address a vital question in social science through a more fine-grained and realistic application of ideas from physics.”In the future, the researchers plan to investigate how these results can help improve cooperative behavior in the real world, in order to better manage natural resources.”Our results are relevant to applications where the induction of cooperative social behavior is the primary approach to managing the sustainable use of limited natural resources in the context of coupled human-natural systems,” Chew said. “Potential systems of interest include the forest system, fisheries system, and many others, in addition to the rice production system of Bali in our paper.”Building on these results, in an upcoming paper the researchers report on how stress from pest infestation can affect rice growth, and how it can lead to an optimality in the farmers’ payoff. This work is scheduled to appear in the June 2017 issue of PNAS.last_img read more

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31 Aug
2019

Dont forget fitness on holidays

first_imgHealth is wealth, and that doesn’t change even when you’re on a holiday. Experts suggest eating healthy and being conscious of one’s body. About one hour of exercise a day can help you stay in shape even while you have fun.Delhi-based fitness expert and trainer Santosh Sharma shares a few tips to stay fit during a holiday: Avoid visiting a restaurant empty stomach. In such cases people end up eating much more. If you’re starving, eat a piece of fruit or have a glass of juice or water in the hotel itself. Later, while having lunch, fill your plate with lightly dressed salads, fish, seafood and lean meats. Fish and meats are high in proteins and iron. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Don’t eat unhealthy snacks or junk food while travelling. Otherwise, you will end up gaining extra kilos. Pack healthy items like fruits, juices and low-fat yoghurts. Don’t overeat. Order a nice salad as a starter and then either share the main course with your partner or go for selected delicacies. Also, eat slowly and chew the food properly. If there’s a mini bar in your hotel room, then lock it and hide the key. Look for healthier alternatives like local fresh fruits or salads. If you are abroad, then try out some local fruits which you don’t get here. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixA glass of wine or a bottle of beer with dinner is fine, but avoid too many drinks after the dinner as it may result in weight gain.Keep a bottle of water and some fruits in your bag so you don’t get tempted when you friends or family ask if you want any ice cream. Take out time and exercise for at least an hour daily even when you are out on a holiday. Nowadays hotels and resorts do have gymnasiums. You don’t need to get up early morning to exercise. Do it when you feel like.last_img read more

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31 Aug
2019

No Summer without mango

first_imgIf it is not mango, then it is not summer. Anyone and everyone in the country drool when it comes to mangoes. Even Katrina Kaif does. From Sindoori, Dussheri, Safeda to the country’s priced possession Alfonso, we love it all. Let’s say  Jaypee Vasant Continental just got it right this summer. They’ve come up with this scrumptious mango filled menu for all the mango lovers. ‘Go Mangolicious’ is a one month event organised by the group to tickle your taste buds. Wondering what could be made out of a simple and succulent mango? Here you go. Italian Mango Cheese Cake, Fresh  Mango  Tarte Tatin, Aam Ki Rasbhari, Mango Kulfi Mango Split, Mango   Brulee, Mango  Meringue  Tart and  Mango Jubilee. Yes, they all await you.last_img

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31 Aug
2019

Man held with fake currency in West Bengal

first_imgKolkata: A man was arrested after fake Indian currency notes (FICN) with a face value of more than one lakh was recovered from his possession, police said today. The man was arrested yesterday from Akhra Fatak area under the jurisdiction of Nadial police station in the city’s port area, the police said.The fake notes recovered from his possession were in denominations of Rs 2,000 and Rs 500, a police officer said.The accused is a resident of Manasipalli in Nadia district, he added.”We are investigating the matter and trying to find out whether any gang was involved in it,” the officer said.last_img

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31 Aug
2019

Pak lifts moratorium on death penalty after attack

first_imgPrime Minister Nawaz Sharif on Wednesday lifted a self-imposed moratorium on death penalty in terror related cases, a day after ruthless Taliban militants massacred at least 132 students and nine staffers at an army-run school in Peshawar.Prime Minister Sharif told an All Parties Conference here that the moratorium on death penalty has been lifted. “Yesterday’s incident is extremely tragic,” he told the political leaders. “These sacrifices will not go wasted and we all want complete elimination of terrorism from Pakistan.” Also Read – Pro-Govt supporters rally as Hong Kong’s divisions deepenAn official from the PM office in Islamabad said that the Prime Minister abolished the moratorium on death penalty in terrorism-related cases. A de facto moratorium on civilian executions has been in place in Pakistan since 2008.Sharif had decided to resume moratorium soon after his government took office in June last year but suspended the plan under international pressure.Pakistan is feared to lose a concessionary trade deal with the European Union after resuming hangings. Some 150 countries have abolished the death penalty or no longer carry out executions. Also Read – Pak Army ‘fully prepared’ to face any challenge: Army spokesmanAccording to the interior ministry estimates more than 8,000 death row prisoners are in Pakistan who have already exhausted all options and would be hanged within weeks if the government allowed the executions. Terrorism has a very broad definition under Pakistani law. About 17,000 cases of “terrorism” are pending in special courts.Justice Project Pakistan released a report saying Wednesday that those convicted of terrorism were often tortured into confessions or denied lawyers, and that recent crackdowns had not stopped militant attacks.A moratorium on the death penalty was imposed in 2008 and only one execution has taken place since then. Taliban attackers shot most students point blank in headMost of the students at the army-run school in Peshawar were shot in the head from point blank range by the ruthless Taliban suicide attackers, in one of the most gruesome attacks against children in recent years. At least 132 students and nine staffers were killed when the attackers wearing para-military Frontier Corps uniforms stormed the Army Public School on Warsak Road and started indiscriminate firing on them on Tuesday. Quoting students, Dawn reported that the attackers scaled the boundary wall from the adjacent graveyard and started firing while moving towards the classrooms and auditorium. “Most of the students have received bullets in the head,” Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa information minister Mushtaq Ahmed Ghani said, giving out chilling account of the attack.The parents, who usually wait outside the school to pick their children at the closing time, were seen crying outside hospitals.Besides the parents and relatives, the people visiting the hospitals were also seen mourning on seeing the bodies and injured students in their blood-stained school uniform. “I saw 17 bodies at the CMH (Combined Military Hospital) and all of them had received bullets in the head,” said an eyewitness. He said that some of the bodies were mutilated. Mohammad Zeeshan, a student of grade-7, said that he and many others were getting first aid training in the school hall when they heard the gunfire. “Our trainer told us to lie down on the floor,” he said, adding that in the meantime the terrorists entered the hall. Zeeshan said the terrorists started shooting the students in their heads at a close range. “They killed our class-fellows and then left us in the main hall. I received a bullet in my foot,” the boy said. Paki begins three-day mourning and mass burials for its childrenPakistan on Wednesday began three days of mourning for the 132 children and nine school staff massacred by the Taliban in the country’s deadliest ever terror attack, as the world united in revulsion. Across the country many schools closed as a mark of respect, while those that opened held special prayers for the 141 killed in Tuesday’s assault on an army-run school in the northwestern city of Peshawar.Schools, colleges, offices and markets were closed across Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, the northwestern province of which Peshawar is the capital.Funerals for the victims, many of whose bodies were pulled from the school still wearing their smart green uniforms drenched in blood, began late on Tuesday and the rest will be carried out on Wednesday.Eyewitnesses said the six attackers came in a white van and torched their vehicle before opening fire to scare away onlookers and clambering over a wall to enter the school.“One of them poured petrol over the vehicle and then set it alight. Then they opened fire in the streets and me along with another person ran away to save our life,” said witness Zabihullah, 12. Two Blasts Outside Girls College Near PeshawarTwo blasts have been heard near a girls college in Pakistan, where 132 children were killed in a massive terror attack by the Taliban at a Peshawar school yesterday. The explosions were reported in Dera Ismail Khan, another city in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. he security forces rushed to the spot of the incident and cordoned off the area.According to some reports, no militant group has claimed the responsibility of the blasts as of now and no casualty has been reported. The nature of the blasts yet to be established.last_img read more

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