17 Sep
2019

Complaints Commission takes legal effect August 1

first_imgFacebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppProvidenciales, 15 Jul 2015 – The final institution for protecting good governance will be established officially come August 1, 2015… the Governor has moved to see the Complaints Commissioner in full legal operation in a matter of weeks. Cynthia Astwood had been introduced since last September as the head of this constitutional body.“We are an independent body; as an independent body our decisions are final.”Along with six others, which includes the Integrity Commission, Director of Public Prosecutions, Human Rights Commission and the Supervisor of Elections, the Complaints Commission is a tenant of good governance with the mandate to investigate any action taken by a public body, including: grievances and conflicts in the workplace; performance issues, discrimination; harassment; corruption; maladministration, such as delays, bias, negligence, abuse of power, failing to give reason for a decision, not following through on a commitment and has the powers of a magistrate. When questioned on the necessity of this office, Astwood who had to meet certain qualifications including not being a former member of the House of Assembly explained.“That is there to protect good governance, and to ensure that Public Servants and other persons have other avenues to go to in case they have a concern or they feel they have not been fairly dealt with or an area needs more investigation to be carried out.”In that March interview, Mrs. Astwood added the commission is not set up to fire people from their jobs or functions in government but it is empowered to enter or inspect any Government office; the focus would be more in line with bringing resolution to complaints. While there is a full office set up in Grand Turk, Astwood said a significant goal for her is to establish a Providenciales place where a deputy Complaints Commissioner would take cases from Provo, North and Middle Caicos. There are some limitations for the Commission as explained in a news release from the Governor’s Office: “The Commission cannot investigate complaints about the Governor, Cabinet, House of Assembly, Justices, Magistrates, the Police or Chief Auditors, because separate complaints arrangements are in place.” MPs say they know nothing about pay raise Governor lauds Bien-Aime & Integrity Commission at anti-corruption meeting TCI’s Community College’s Dismercy Lugo wins Integrity Commission’s College Speak Off Recommended for you Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Related Items:complaints commission, cynthia astwood, Director of Public Prosecutions, Human Rights Commission and the Supervisor of Elections, integrity commissionlast_img read more

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10 Sep
2019

How sleep apnea robs you of a good nights rest

first_img 1 Now playing: Watch this: How to improve sleep using tech 1:04 Comment How to get better sleep in 2019 Tags Causes and risk factors of sleep apneaAn “apnea” is a temporary pause in breathing. In most cases, it’s caused by tissue collapsing in the back of the throat (obstructive sleep apnea). When you fall asleep, the muscles of your upper airway relax. This narrows your airway, making it hard for oxygen to reach your lungs. If you sleep on your back, gravity can exacerbate this narrowing, because your tongue relaxes backward toward your throat. Central sleep apnea is usually linked to other medical conditions, such as heart disorders and brain damage.As far as risk factors, many things can influence your likelihood to develop sleep apnea, the most common and significant being excess body weight. Common risk factors for sleep apnea include:Excess weight: If you have a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher, your risk for sleep apnea increases.Large neck circumference: Your risk for sleep apnea is higher if your neck measures 17 inches or more for men, or 16 inches or more for women. This is because a larger neck has more tissue that’s liable to collapse during sleep. Age: Sleep apnea can affect people of any age, but it becomes more common when people reach young adulthood and middle age. Gender: More men get sleep apnea than women. For women, the risk of sleep apnea increases as they approach and go through menopause. High blood pressure: Hypertension and sleep apnea commonly coexist.Family history: If a family member has sleep apnea, your risk is higher, because sleep apnea can be inherited. Alcohol use: Drinking alcohol before bed can cause your throat muscles to relax even further.Smoking: Smoking can increase inflammation in your airways. POLYSOMNOGRAPHYTo be diagnosed with sleep apnea, you might undergo a polysomnography test. AMELIE-BENOIST / BSIP / Getty Images How do you get diagnosed with sleep apnea?In most cases, doctors diagnose sleep apnea based on a careful physical exam, sleep evaluation and sleep history. You may not be able to provide a sleep history by yourself, but you can enlist the help of someone who shares your bed or room.A sleep evaluation usually involves overnight monitoring at a sleep center, where machines measure your breathing and other body functions, such as your pulse, while you sleep. Sometimes, at-home sleep tests are an option. Tests that detect sleep apnea include:Nocturnal polysomnography: During this test, equipment measures the activity of your heart, lungs and brain, as well as your breathing and movement patterns and blood oxygen levels while you sleep.Multiple Sleep Latency Testing (MSLT): An MSLT tests for excessive daytime sleepiness by measuring how quickly you fall asleep in a quiet environment during the day. It’s often used to diagnose narcolepsy.  Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT): An MWT measures your ability to stay awake during the day by finding your sleep latency, or how long it takes you to fall asleep. Sleep latencies of less than eight minutes during the day are considered abnormal.Home sleep tests: At-home tests are usually simplified versions of nocturnal polysomnography that measure your heart rate, airflow, breathing patterns and blood oxygen levels.In some cases, doctors refer patients to sleep specialist or otolaryngologist (also known as an ear, nose and throat or ENT doctor) for further evaluation, which can include a nasal airflow test and an examination to rule out any blockages in your nose or ears.Your doctor might also refer you to a cardiologist or neurologist to look for causes of central sleep apnea. A neurologist may conduct an electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure brain waves and test for central sleep apnea, while a cardiologist can use an electrocardiogram (ECG) to rule out or confirm any heart complications. Man in his 30s with sleep apnea sleeping using CPAPCPAP masks are one of the most common way to treat sleep apnea. Alina Solovyova-Vincent / Getty Images How to treat sleep apneaYou can treat sleep apnea a few ways, and many people go through a series of trial treatments to find out what works best for their sleep apnea. Sometimes, it takes takes a series of trials to find the best treatment, and most people end up using a combination of common equipment, machines and therapies to get relief. Treatment options for sleep apnea include: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): Most people who seek treatment for sleep apnea start with CPAP. You choose a CPAP mask, which sends a pressurized airflow through your throat to open your airways while you sleep. If you use a CPAP, make sure to keep it clean. Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP):  Similar to a CPAP, a BiPAP also provides a pressurized flow of air. The key difference is that it provides two different streams — one as you breathe in, and one as you breathe out.Chinstrap: Usually used in conjunction with a CPAP, chinstraps help you to stop breathing through your mouth. Oral appliances: If you don’t have severe sleep apnea, you could try custom-fitted oral devices that help keep your airway open. Just make sure to get one from a qualified dentist or orthodontist, not a one-size-fits-all appliance from the internet.Usually, your doctor won’t recommend surgery unless all other options have failed to treat and improve your sleep apnea. Most doctors suggest at least a three-month trial of other options before recommending surgery, which can include nasal reconstruction (such as to fix a deviated septum) or removal of adenoids — the soft tissue in the back of your throat. Symptoms of sleep apneaThe most common symptom of sleep apnea is snoring, but snoring on its own isn’t always indicative of sleep apnea. Snoring followed by silent pauses, gasping or choking sounds is likely a sign of sleep apnea. Because sleep apnea wakes you up frequently throughout the night (even if you don’t notice it), you can suffer from symptoms of sleep deprivation, such as daytime fatigue, difficulty concentrating, unintentional napping and irritability or mood swings. Other symptoms include:Feeling tired, even when you thought you had a full night’s sleepInsomnia or trouble falling asleepHeadaches and migrainesLoss of memory Decreased sex driveNocturia (waking up at night to use the bathroom) Complications of sleep apneaWhen you have sleep apnea, your body is consistently deprived of oxygen throughout the night. This lack of oxygen can have negative long-term effects on your health. Sleep apnea has been associated with:Hypertension (high blood pressure) Cardiovascular disease StrokeDiabetes Depression Metabolic syndrome Liver problems Read more: This one tip will help you sleep better tonight 29 Photos Share your voice Sleep Ghislain & Marie David de Lossy/Getty You know the consequences of not getting enough sleep: mood swings, crabbiness, cravings, difficulty focusing and sluggishness. And when you don’t know why you can’t get enough sleep, the symptoms become even more frustrating. The culprits behind sleepless nights range from blue light to parasites — but you might be dealing with something more serious: sleep apnea.An estimated 22 million Americans suffer from sleep apnea, a sleep disorder that causes you to momentarily stop breathing while you’re asleep. With sleep apnea, your airway becomes blocked when your body relaxes during sleep, limiting your lungs to little air flow.Characterized by loud snoring and often choking noises, sleep apnea causes your brain and body to become oxygen-deprived, often leading to frequent awakenings throughout the night. Depending on the case, it could happen a few times per night or hundreds of times each night.This guide goes over the different types of sleep apnea, causes, risk factors and symptoms to help you understand sleep apnea. You’ll also learn how to go about seeking a diagnosis and treatment options if you think you may have sleep apnea.Read more: What’s the difference between REM and deep sleep?Different types of sleep apneaThere are three types of sleep apnea, and the way they manifest in your body is different. But the end result is the same — all three deprive your body of oxygen.Obstructive sleep apnea is the more common form of sleep apnea that occurs when your throat muscles relax, blocking your lungs from receiving oxygen.Central sleep apnea is less common, and it occurs when your brain doesn’t properly signal the muscles in your body that control breathing.Complex sleep apnea syndrome, also known as treatment-emergent central sleep apnea, is the least common of all three. This occurs when someone exhibits signs of both obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea last_img read more

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31 Aug
2019

Stanford group creates miniature selfcontained fluorescence microscope

first_img Researcher Mark Schnitzer demonstrates the microscope’s tiny size and weight. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Microscope could ‘solve the cause of viruses’ More information: Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope, Nature Methods (2011) doi:10.1038/nmeth.1694AbstractThe light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals for relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including a semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular imaging across ~0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. Citation: Stanford group creates miniature self-contained fluorescence microscope (2011, September 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-stanford-group-miniature-self-contained-fluorescence.html (PhysOrg.com) — A team of researchers working at Stanford University have devised a means for building the smallest self-contained fluorescence microscope ever. Weighing just under 2 grams and slightly larger than the end of a pencil, the new microscope is small enough to attach to a mouse head, which means researchers can watch the mouse brain in a natural setting. Led by Mark Schnitzer and Abbas El Gamal, the team describes its findings in Nature Methods. One downside to the new microscope is that its resolution isn’t quite as good as standard bench models; 2.5 microns as opposed to 0.5. But it does have a larger field of view, which means that most serious labs would likely want to have both types of microscopes, depending on what is being studied.While it’s difficult to say what new discoveries might be made with a microscope that allows researchers to watch a mouse brain in action (on a computer screen) as the mouse goes about its normal activities, it’s probably safe to say, that many of them are likely to be quite illuminating.Schnitzer and some of his colleagues have founded a company they call Inscopix to develop the new microscope and bring it to market, thought they can’t say yet, when that might be. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Till now, most brain researchers have had to use so-called bench-top microscopes, which are what they sound like; microscopes that sit on a bench. This requires that specimens be brought to the microscope (and held still) for examination. This new microscope turns that whole process around in that it allows the microscope to be brought to the specimen, allowing researchers to study the brain in ways that have not been possible before. The team reports that they have already discovered new capillary dilation properties in mouse brains.The fluorescence microscope differs from traditional microscopes in that it looks at material that has a fluorescence property, i.e. is fluorescent (the emission of light by a material when exposed to radiation). To take advantage of this property specimens must be either naturally fluorescent (such as certain proteins) or stained with a fluorescent material. The approach is similar to that seen when a black-light is used to illuminate semen or blood samples at crime scenes. The light sources used in a fluorescence microscope are typically xenon arc or mercury-vapor lamps.The miniaturized microscope developed by the team is comprised of mass produced parts, which the team says will allow for it to be mass produced at a much lower cost than standard bench-microscopes, opening the door to research at places that have up till now lacked the funds to purchase the more expensive equipment. Design and fabrication of an integrated fluorescence microscope. Image: NPG, Nature Methods (2011) doi:10.1038/nmeth.1694last_img read more

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